The management skills of supervisors and managers are detrimental when it comes to assessing how organizations are effectively run, especially during a time in history that is experiencing rapid change. The purpose of this study is to investigate which management skills contribute to effectiveness and efficiency of the workplace, and to which degree. It also aims to compare the correlation between manager efficiency and conceptual human and technical skills of those in the workplace.
The data was collected using a questionnaire which was obtained from municipal employees across Istanbul. A total of 194 questionnaires were handed out, however, 186 units were deemed valid. As a result of the analysis performed, human, conceptual and technical skills have proved to be proportionately effective to manager effectivenesswhen working in an environment. Such effectiveness and efficiency in the case of the manager is based on skills such as: communication, interpersonal skills, and the ability to motivate and encourage a team. The influence on the effectiveness that management may have on both the conceptual and technical skills of the workplace changes according to the level of the upper-management.
This study has shown; under competition and particular uncertainty, it becomes increasingly difficult to achieve desired goals. The difficulty of this task is further heightened by a system of classical management based on protecting an organization’s efficiency and maintaining the status quo.
For managers to be part of operations and to be in effective communication with their employees, they must persuade and motivate their employees, and be able to provide organizational effectiveness.
In today’s global world, where changes drive forward every field, mankind has plunged into a quest to use available resources in the most effective and efficient way to create a difference. In addition to this, the only way to become successful and to compete with other organizations is to create that difference through the efficient use of resources (Koçoğlu, 2010).
This quick development and transformation requires and compels institutions to different pursuits in order to become successful. Assessments and change become necessary for a successful organization to result and in order to sustain competitiveness in a field of new pursuits and for possible improvement in any or all of the following areas: usage of resources, procurement of raw materials, technological development and efficiency in making use of opportunities. The focus of all efforts is on creating new opportunities and so the questionthen becomes how to manage and make use of such opportunities in the most rational way. Therefore, evaluation covers the contribution of organizational managers in the scope of an institution’s success. People who deal with management and are responsible for the organization’s management structure as well as functionality, are primarily the top managers of institutions. For organization to carry out its defined mission and remain competitive, the management of organizations is examined in terms of operation and structure in order to perform manager analyses. This is why management concept has become the focus of debate in today’s management organizations, and why skills and properties of managers have been put in the center of successful management discussions (Eren, 2001).
The relationship between organization’s efficiency and manager efficiency, manager efficiency and organization’s effectiveness etc. subjects were emphasized in scope of literature works done until today, but no detailed work was carried out on the relationship between manager properties and manager efficiency. This work aims at carrying out a much more detailed study on manager efficiency and manager properties, and also public servants are taken as examples to add a different perspective. The aim is to make academic contributions to today’s academic literature and managers, in addition to being a guide for future works.
The purpose of this work is to put forward manager behaviors and properties to define the efficient manager and to study which manager properties and skills contribute to manager efficiency. In parallel with this purpose, the management and manager concepts are going to be discussed by examining the skills and properties of managers which must be owned by management organizations.
Manager is the person who is expected to be efficient and successful and who must carry out the arrangements that will ensure the institution reaches its purpose and targets. In other words the manager is the name of the person, who is expected to reach and achieve certain purposes by displaying administrative functions, regardless of the institution’s structure or current position level.
Erdoğan (2008) defines it as the person who is obliged to and responsible for managing efficiently and effectively, in order to make people who come together for a purpose be able to achieve that target harmoniously and cooperatively.
According to an extensive definition the manager is “the person who directs material and human production factors put under his command, to achieve determined purposes within a specific time, by considering the developments happening around, and who is responsible from the effectiveness of his owned resources” (Koçoğlu, 2010). Managers wrap themselves up in different manager styles based on their behaviors to their subordinates, their approaches to the job and the authorization transfer.
Management can be seen as a pyramid with management organs that allow the establishment to achieve its set targets and get the job done by others. In this regard, management can be categorized into three stages. (Mucuk, 2008)
- Top Level Management
- Middle Level Management
- Low Level Management
Top Level Management and Managers: These people are the ones with the highest authorization and power, who bear the responsibility for the whole establishment, who define establishment’s purpose, long-term policies and strategies, and who represent the establishment with the widest authority in the external environment (Mucuk, 2008).
Middle Level Management and Managers: These people are the ones who work to realize the purposes determined by top management through focusing on application, and their human skills are in the foreground (Ataman, 2009).
Low Level Management and Managers: These are the people who are responsible in the first degree from the workers who actually do the job in addition to technical, commercial or administrative personnel (Ataman, 2009).
BASIC PROPERTIES AND SKILLS OF MANAGEMENT
According to Tamer Koçel (1989), management is a group of activities with three dimensions: technical, human and conceptual. Technical dimension is the manager’s functional specialty, human dimension is being able to influence people whom he works with, and conceptual dimension is a manager’s ability to see the organization as a whole.
In parallel with technical, human and conceptual dimensions that constitute three individual aspects of management activities, management skills are examined in three categories such as Technical, Human Relations and Conceptual Skills (Mucuk, 2008).
Manager skills classified in this way vary by management levels. It is known that management skills used based on management levels show differences. Conceptual skills are used much more by top level management while human skills are used more by middle level managers, while technical skills are more necessary for the administrator level. Human skills include skills of communication, coordination, motivation, directing and controlling. Technical skills include the skill to manage technical parts of the job, while the conceptual skills include planning, organization and decision-making.
- Technical Skills
It is defined as the accumulation of knowledge about methods, processes, procedures, methods and key points to carry out specialized activities and skills to use tools and materials related to such activities (Yukl, 2004).
Technical skill is the skill that include usage of various tools, methods and technologies to carry out organizational activities (Çetinkaya 2009). In this scope, special information, mastery, tactics and methods necessary to achieve a task, are all included under the topic of technical skills. Technical skills also require information about products and services, organizational properties, properties of employees, management systems and rules along with methods, processes and the equipment needed to complete the task at hand. Technical knowledge and skills are gained with formation, training and job experience while having a strong memory and being able to acquire new information one may need from various sources is also important (Yukl, 2004).
Technical skills are more important for an organization’s low level managers (Koçoğlu, 2010).
- Human Skills (Relations)
It is defined as the accumulation of knowledge about human behavior and interpersonal processes; the skill to understand the instincts (empathy, social sensitivity) that allows to understand feelings, behaviors and what other people are going to do and say; clear and active communication skills (fluent speech, persuasion skills); skill to establish active and cooperative relations (behaving according to environment, diplomacy, listening skills, accumulation of knowledge on acceptable social behaviors) (Yukl, 2004).
Human skills are the skills that allow organizational purposes to be realized and that allow an individual expected job satisfaction (Çetinkaya, 2009). Relevant behaviors include information about group processes, being able to understand other people’s emotions, behaviors and instincts, and communicating with them in a clear and persuasive way. Empathy, social foresight, tactic, persuasiveness, diplomacy, oral communication skills, staying in a cooperative communication with the subordinates, superiors and counterparts are the properties owned by leaders having this skill. These kind of skills are important to influence people. Being able to listen to people without judging them is key to understand and evaluate them correctly (Yukl, 2004).
In order to observe whether the human relations are used efficiently, we should examine the concepts of communication, coordination, directing, motivation, performance evaluation, control, problem-solving, emotional intelligence, social intelligence and emotional control.
- Conceptual Skills
Conceptual skill is the skill to see the elements that constitute the organization as a whole (Çetinkaya, 2009). Conceptual or cognitive skills include subjects such as justice, creativeness, foresight, intuition and sense-making, in addition to basically including analytical skill, logical thinking, induction and deduction knowledge as well as conceptualization. Such skills are owned by top level managers. Active planning, organization, problem-solving, associating different departments of the organization with each other, strategic planning and analyzing the events etc. are examined under the title of conceptual skills. (Yukl, 2004).
Conceptual skills gain more importance towards the upper levels as they include being able to see the organization as a whole, to coordinate and integrate the interests and activities of the organization and to see the relation between departments of the organization. Managers who carry out strategic planning have to use conceptual skills in their relations with the environment. (Koçoğlu, 2010).
Strong management skills are a basic necessity for an organization to survive in the world of competition where there is a need to track changes continuously. The leader-manager concept gained significance because of this necessity. Understanding people, systematic thinking, harmony between individual-organizational targets, increasing organizational loyalty of the employees and such leadership skills are important in increasing the financial sources of companies. However, the element that makes leadership more meaningful under the umbrella of organization is, forming a successful team spirit within the organization. Uniting employees with big targets they can achieve, developing strategies to reach those targets and motivating wage earners who are open to improvement with continuous training activities are indispensable points for a leader-manager in scope of forming the team spirit (Özdemir, 2009).
Manager structuring of organizations generally consist of 3 stages as low level managers, middle level managers and top level managers. Jobs and responsibilities of managers in these three categories are different. Their roles in the organization vary as the skills and abilities they need to become successful depend on their position. Each manager contributes and helps management function (planning, organization, directing and controlling) as required by their management level. Without naming their contributions as more important or less important among themselves, those who work in three management levels are the managers who define the efficiency of the other employees and therefore the organization. Regardless of their organization or level, the manager is the person who is expected to be efficient and effective on the employees in reaching the targets, by assuming the responsibility of one or more management functions. In order to become successful, the manager must be able to manage employee efforts and perceptions (Robbins and Coulter, 2005) (Erigüç et al, 2009).
Katz and Kahn efficiencies are defined as maximizing the organizational outputs in every possible way (economical, technological, political, etc).
Gibson explains efficiency in three individual steps. The most basic level is the “individual efficiency” where the organization’s members, all the employees, one by one are considered in scope of their performances. Jobs carried out by the individuals are parts of jobs and positions within the organization, therefore managers evaluate individuals performances periodically based on standards specific to that institution. As individuals generally work within a group, another efficiency type is compared to this one and this characterized as the “group efficiency”. Group efficiency can simply be expressed as the total of contributions of all group members in scope of the production. But it must be said that the group efficiency -because of the synergy created- means more than the total of contributions of the members. Third perspective in efficiency is the “organizational efficiency”. Organizations include individuals and groups, therefore group efficiency includes individual and group efficiencies together. Besides, organizational efficiency expresses more than the total of individual efficiency and group efficiency. Like it happens in the group efficiency, organizations can reach to a performance level higher than the total of performances of their parts.
The reason of existence for organizations is to achieve targets efficiently. Success of people and organizations is proportional to effective and efficient managers and management. The continuing efforts to increase efficiency and effectiveness are getting more frequent in our age. Almost all of organizational theories aim at defining and increasing efficiency (Ekinci and Yılmaz, 2002).
“Manager Efficiency” is about the organization’s achieving its peak targets. First of the administrative duties of the manager is to obtain the highest possible performance from the jobs. Manager efficiency is not an ordinary property. Manager efficiency is observed when he can create solutions special to a problem he meets.
An efficient manager focuses on what kind of contribution can be made to the functions of production, planning, coordination and controlling. Focusing on the contribution is the secret of becoming efficient. This influences the managers own work, work content, level, standards, influence, relations with superiors, colleagues and sellers and usage of management tools such as preparation of reports and meetings (Ekinci and Yılmaz, 2002).
Effectiveness can be defined as the proportion of total physical income compared to the total output or production result obtained within a production or service system (Efil, 2004). Effectiveness concept is a criterion that expresses active functionality of the system in such a way that increases output amounts without increasing inputs. Therefore, effectiveness has a function that increases the level of welfare for an establishment by creating additional income. Moreover, the criteria such as input, output, added value, number of employees, working hours, wage payments and stock changes among others, shall be considered in calculation of effectiveness (Eren, 2001).
Effective operation is an important target for organizations in both the production and service sector. Effectiveness, in the widest sense, is the proportion of total output to total input. Effectiveness concept is also called productivity. There are various ideas about the emergence of this concept. When we look at the first time the word productivity was used in the science world with a meaning close to the meaning it has today, we see that it was used in the 16th century by German Engineer Dr. George Bauer to explain how to improve mine extraction. The book De Re Metallica, which was published in 1556, is the source where the word productivity is closest to the meaning we use today. Effectiveness gained significance and soon became a subject on which people work towards during the following periods, especially after the emergence and spread of the Industrial Revolution. Effectiveness is a concept that has always been known and discussed as a “measurement of success” which is easy to define but hard to calculate (Özdemir and Muradova, 2008).
When we think about the manager effectiveness, the work force has bigger potential to affect the effectiveness when compared to other factors. The factor that does the job, in other words, triggers the production factors and therefore createsa product or service, is the workforce. Therefore effectiveness of the workforce can directly affect establishment’s effectiveness, and to a wide extent. Therefore the effectiveness of managers who manage, control and coordinate all of the work processes directly affect establishment’s effectiveness (Özdemir and Muradova, 2008).
According to researches it is seen that the factors that increase the effectiveness of managers and wage earners are concepts such as the openness of channels of communication, fee, motivation, career etc. (Özdemir and Muradova, 2008).
METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS
It has been tried with this project to measure the relationship between management skills, manager efficiency and effectiveness.
It has been examined how the managers activities are affected by technical, human (communication, coordination, motivation, controlling) and conceptual (planning, decision-making, creative thinking, problem solving) skills. A survey was carried out on three district municipality workers in Istanbul, which is used as the sample in the study. 194 workers took part in the survey, 186 of which were found acceptable. SPSS 11,5 software was used to analyze the data and information obtained as the result of the survey. Analyses used in the study consists of reliability analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis and regression analyses to test study hypotheses. Findings of the study were tested at p<0.01 and p<0.05 significance levels.
A five point Likert type scale was used to answer the surveys used in this study. Assessment options in the scale are: 1-I definitely disagree, 2-I disagree, 3-Average, 4-I agree, 5-I definitely agree.
There are 32 closed ended questions about conceptual skills in the first part of the survey, 23 closed ended questions in the second part about human skills (Source S. Cameron & Quinn, 1999), five closed ended questions about technical skills in the third part, (Z. Zorluer, 2013), eight closed ended questions about efficiency in the fourth part(Chen ,et. all.,2006, Ergun, Oruç., 2009) and six closed ended questions about effectiveness in the fifth part. (Chen ,et. all., 2006)
Correlations and Regression Analysis
According to Table 1; Pearson correlation coefficients, average, standard deviation and correlation analysis results of variables in the model were given. Standard deviation values belonging to variables are calculated between 0,84 and 1,07; and show that the variance (variability) amount between these values is at sufficient level to carry out a valid analysis.
According to Table 1; the highest relation between manager skills dimensions is meaningful at positive correlation p<0,01 (0,885) level between human skills and top level conceptual skills, while the lowest relation is meaningful at positive correlation p<0,01 (0,561) level between manager effectiveness and technical skills. Moreover, another relation among manager skills dimension is meaningful at positive correlation p<0,01 (0,807) level between human skills and strategical conceptual skills. According to created data, it can be assessed that the human skills have high positive correlation with strategic and top conceptual skills, while it has a positive but lower relation with technical skills.
The highest relation between independent variables and manager effectiveness which is one of the dependent variables in Table 1 is meaningful at positive correlation p<0,01 (0,867) levels. It is also meaningful at positive correlation p<0,01 (0,730) and (0,817) level between manager efficiency and strategic and top level conceptual skills. It is evaluated according to data that, the manager efficiency has a high positive relation between conceptual skills at secondary degree and with human skills at primary degree. It can be concluded that there is meaningful result at positive correlation p<0,01 (0,752) level between manager efficiency and technical skills, in addition to a positive relation at conceptual skills level.
The highest correlation between independent variables and manager effectiveness, which is one of the dependent variables in Table 1, is with the human skills. This relation is meaningful at p<0,01 (0,630) levels. The correlation between independent variables is stronger with the efficiency that is among the dependent variables, when compared to effectiveness that is among the dependent variables.
Numerical closeness degree of corrected R2 and R2 values in Table 1 to 1 (one), expresses the direct proportion in reaching the reality result. R2 (which is 0.78) and corrected R2 values show at what degree the independent variables explain the dependent variable. According to the results it is seen that the managerial skills among the independent variables explain manager efficiency which is a dependent variable at 78% rate, while managerial skills, which are independent variables, explain dependent variable manager effectiveness at 43% rate.
There is positive relation at p<0,01 (11,538) level between the dependent variable manager efficiency and human skill which is the independent variable in Table 2. Also, there is positive relation at p<0,01 (6,269) level between manager efficiency which is the dependent variable and technical skill which is the independent variable. There is a positive relation at p<0,01 (2,889) level between top level conceptual skills and manager efficiency. Therefore when the human skills and technical skills are increased 1 (one) unit at p<0,01 level; the manager efficiency increases based on human skills by 11,538, based on technical skills by 6,269 and based on top level conceptual skills by 2,889. In this scope the increase in manager efficiency; depends on the increase of human, technical and top level conceptual skill degrees which are independent variables.
There is no positive relation at p<0,01 and/or p<0,05 level between dependent variable manager efficiency and strategical conceptual skills which are the independent variables in Table 2. In the light of this information, it is thought that the increase in manager efficiency is not directly connected to the increase of strategical conceptual skill degrees among the independent variables.
Table 2 shows multiple regression analysis of the relation between manager effectiveness and independent variables. All of the Strategical Conceptual, Top Level Conceptual, Human and Technical Skills have meaningful positive relation with the manager effectiveness. We see a relation that changes between 2,852 and 2,073 at p<0,01 level.
Results in Table 2 were taken into account for all management levels. The same regression analysis was carried out individually for low, middle and top level managers.
Numerical closeness degree of corrected R2 and R2 values in Table 3 to 1 (one), expresses the direct proportion in reaching the reality result. R2 and corrected R2 (which are 0.76 and 0.75) values show at what degree the independent variables explain the dependent variable. According to the results it is seen that the managerial skills among the independent variables explain manager efficiency which is a dependent variable at 76% rate, while managerial skills which are independent variables explain dependent variable manager effectiveness at 46% rate.
There is positive relation at p<0,01 (6,465) between dependent variable top level manager efficiency and top level management human skills in Table 3. Also, there is positive relation at p<0,01 (3,801) level between manager efficiency which is the dependent variable and technical skills which are the independent variables. This regression analysis as the result of the survey that was carried out in scope of local managements (municipalities) show that top management’s human skills are efficient in a meaningful way in manager efficiency. Especially communication and motivation among the human skills which are at 0.750 level in scope of the factor, are indispensable properties of top level manager efficiency. This analysis, in which technical skills are influential, shows the necessity that top manager must have full knowledge of the subjects and be able to create a technical vision for his subordinates and the city.
Independent variables that affect the manager effectiveness, which is a dependent variable, are strategical conceptual skills with p<0,01 (2,955) and human skills with p<0,01 (1,679) . Therefore, when strategical conceptual skills and human skills increase 1 (one) unit at p<0,01 level, the level of manager effectiveness increases depending on the strategical conceptual skills by 2,955 and depending on human skills by 1,679. In this scope the increase in manager effectiveness depends on the increase of strategical conceptual skills and human skills which are independent variables. Once again, when the top level manager in scope of municipalities have strategical conceptual skills such as planning, activity controlling and strategical thinking, it creates an effective manager perception in the eye of his subordinates and those who receive the services.
Numerical closeness degree of corrected R2 and R2 values in Table 4 to 1 (one), expresses the direct proportion in reaching the reality result. R2 and corrected R2 (which are 0,78 and 0,77) values show at what degree the independent variables explain the dependent variable. According to the results it is seen that the managerial skills among the independent variables explain manager efficiency which is a dependent variable at 78% rate, while managerial skills which are independent variables explain dependent variable manager effectiveness at 47% rate.
There is positive relation at p<0,01 (6,740) level between dependent variable top level manager efficiency and middle level management human skills in Table 4. This high relation level shows that, human skills play an important role in manager efficiency in municipalities for administrators at manager and deputy manager levels. High values of communication, motivation and decision-making in scope of factor analysis show that leader properties are important for middle level managers too, for them to be efficient. Also; there is positive relation at p<0,01 (2,270) and (2,222) level between top conceptual and technical skills which are independent variables and manager efficiency which is a dependent variable. This result shows that, when the middle level managers who manage the coordination and who act as a bridge between top level managers and low level managers who personally carry out the application, as required by their positions, have both technical and top conceptual skills, this increases the manager efficiency.
The independent variables that affect the manager effectiveness which is a dependent variable, are top conceptual skills with p<0,05 (1,890) and human skills with p<0,05 (1,859) . Although their meaningfulness level is at 0,05 level, an effective middle level manager shall have top conceptual skills in addition to human skills.
Therefore, when top conceptual skills and human skills increase 1 (one) unit at p<0,05 level, manager effectiveness level increases by 1,890 depending on top conceptual skills and by 1,859 depending on human skills. In this scope the increase in manager effectiveness depends on the increase of top conceptual skills and human skills which are independent variables. In scope of municipalities, a middle level manager’s effectiveness will increase or decrease based on at what degree top management successfully transmits the vision to subordinates and puts it into practice.
The numerical closeness degree of R2 and corrected R2 values in Table 5 to 1 (one), expresses the direct proportion in reaching the reality result. R2 and corrected R2 values, which are 0.83 and 0.82, show at what rate the independent variables explain the dependent variable. According to the results it is seen that the managerial skills among the independent variables explain manager efficiency which is a dependent variable at 83% rate, while managerial skills which are independent variables explain dependent variable manager effectiveness at 40% rate.
There is positive relation at p<0,01 (7,193) between dependent variable manager efficiency and human skills which are low level managerial skills, in Table 5. Also, there is positive relation at p<0,01 (5,146) level between manager efficiency which is the dependent variable and technical skills which are the independent variable. This two relations reveal that, human skills are important also in low level management level like it is with the others, and they affect manager efficiency at a meaningful extent. Low level management personally manages the application and is the first answerer in the management level in scope of application of works, and therefore technical skills make important contributions to efficiency.
This regression analysis as the result of the survey that was carried out in scope of local managements (municipalities) shows that low level management’s human skills are efficient in a meaningful way in manager efficiency. Especially communication and motivation among the human skills which are at 0.750 level in scope of the factor, are indispensable properties of low level manager efficiency. Having technical skills is indispensable for the efficiency at this management level, which track the technical works by supervising the works on site.
The independent variables that affect the management effectiveness which is a dependent variable are technical skills with p<0,01 (2,955). Therefore when the technical skills are increased 1 (one) unit at p<0,01 level, the manager effectiveness level increases by 2,955 depending on the technical skills. In this scope the manager effectiveness increase depends on the increase of technical skills degrees, which are independent variables. Carrying out the job effectively will ensure effectiveness of low level management, as the efficiency in scope of municipalities is related to the degree the work is carried out correctly, and how long it lasted.
Effects of conceptual, human and technical manager skills on three different management level manager effectiveness and efficiency are put forward in the study with an application carried out with three district municipality workers in Istanbul.
During the factor analysis, it was found more meaningful to evaluate conceptual skills with two factors as strategical conceptual and top level conceptual skills, and to evaluate human and technical skills as one factor (Table-5.4.). In scope of regression analyses carried out in this way, it is evident that only the strategical conceptual skills have negative relation with manager efficiency, and other skills had a positive relation which generally match up with theoretical information based on literature inquiry (Table-5.7.).
When we consider the managers in general, it is seen that except for the negative relation of strategical conceptual skills on manager efficiency, it has positive effects on manager effectiveness while top level conceptual skills, human skills and technical skills have positive effects on both manager efficiency and manager effectiveness (Table-5.7.).
Creative thinking, future management and problem-solving among the top level conceptual skills are coming to the forefront as the most important factors that increase manager efficiency (Table-5.4.). An efficient manager shall think creatively to put forward a vision and manage the future with such vision, and be able to use human properties and creative thinking skills well while solving problems. A manager who can do these in their proper place creates an efficient manager perception.
This study has revealed that there is a meaningful relation at high degree between human skills and manager efficiency (Table-5.4.).Problem-solving, coordination, communication, motivation and decision-making are also among the human skills that are coming forward as the most important factors that increase manager efficiency (Table-5.4.). The relation between human skills and efficiency determined during the study is in parallel with the literature inquiries. When an efficient manager has good communication with his subordinates and superiors, this motivates his team, ensures coordination and uses other human skills actively. This positively affects a manager’s high efficiency.
For all three level managers (municipalities: top level: Mayor/Deputy mayor, middle level: Manager/Deputy manager and low level: Chief) human skills are at a very important level for manager efficiency. Using a good communication channel to solve problems; ensuring participation by keeping communication strong when making decisions; to motivate when decisions are being applied and to ensure coordination are properties that increase the efficiency of managers from all levels. Especially in scope of service sector managers (municipalities are state organs that deliver service to the people) when the human skills are high, the efficiency of the work and the person who carried out the work increases.
In each activity field that requires technical information it is seen that all three management levels the technical skills effect the efficiency in a meaningful way and at high rates (Table-5.7.). Contribution of the technical skill owned by the manager about the performed service to the efficiency is also proportional to usage of human skills when that service is being presented. An efficient manager presents his technical skill with his human skills. In parallel with the literature, the technical skills of chief/low level managers increase the manager efficiency more when compared to other skills (Table-5.10.). When evaluated in scope of municipalities, the reason of high level of contribution of technical skills in efficiency for top level managers is: because of the necessity of being able to give technical answer to people’s questions and having grasp of technical details when a planned work is explained by the mayor and deputy mayor and municipality personnel (Table-5.8.). A top level manager that has grasp of technical details, is seen as an efficient manager who knows what he is doing and who has control over details in the eyes of stakeholders.
An efficient manager may have one, two or all of conceptual, human or technical skills. This study revealed which skill of the manager puts him forward as an efficient manager and the abovementioned results were obtained. In scope of this study, when the skill of a manager comes to the foreground, this does not mean the manager does not have the other skills. This study assessed three levels (top, middle and low) of managers and examined the effects of individual manager properties of these three level managers on the manager efficiency. This study which has been carried out on local municipalities may give different results when carried out in different sectors.